The best use of electricity price mechanism to imp

2022-07-24
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Abstract: China only has the experience of wholesale electricity price and terminal sales electricity price in the planned economy era, but has no experience of wholesale electricity price and terminal sales electricity price in the market economy era

since the promulgation of Zhongfa No. 9 document, the power industry should use the price mechanism to control "power utilization efficiency and focus on promoting supply side structural reform". Electricity price reform means that all competitive fields are liberalized, and the government in monopoly fields makes scientific planning, and does a good job in cost supervision and comprehensive price supervision

I

power price pricing principles

China's power law stipulates that the power price shall be subject to unified policy, unified pricing principle and hierarchical management. It also stipulates that "in formulating the electricity price, the cost shall be reasonably compensated, the income shall be reasonably determined, the tax shall be included in accordance with the law, the fair burden shall be adhered to, and the power construction shall be promoted"

in the introduction to electricity cost and electricity price prepared by the Department of economic and social affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, it is stated that the electricity price system should have 10 conditions, such as legality, ensuring income, adaptability, simplicity and stability. The principles of electricity price design in Hong Kong include charging sufficient operating expenses to users, implementing load management planning, minimizing the variation of electricity price, maintaining the stability of electricity revenue, making the price list as simple and clear as possible, and making the electricity price easy to be accepted by users

among the above three principles for formulating electricity price, two mentioned that the electricity price should be simple, one said that the electricity price system should be as simple as possible, and the other said that the price list should be simple and easy to understand. When introducing the electricity price system, France said that the complexity of price signals increases with the increase of users. In fact, the structure of electricity price should be as simple as possible to avoid the increase of electricity transaction costs due to the improvement of the accuracy of price signals. When formulating the electricity price system, how to understand the electricity price should be simple? There are more than 50 kinds of electricity prices for California Pacific Gas Power Company in the United States, and there are different kinds of electricity prices for EDF in France, such as blue, yellow, green and so on, which are also considered as simple as possible

II

difficulties in the formulation of electricity price

electricity price should be formulated according to the cost, which should not only achieve fair burden and reasonable cost compensation, but also guide users to use electricity reasonably, so as to improve the economic benefits of the electric power industry in China. It is relatively simple to consider the compensation cost in 2014, but it is difficult to achieve fair benefits and rational use of electricity

in fact, based on the characteristics of the power industry, there are many kinds of power designs, and it is impossible to solve the problem with a single electricity price. Power enterprises should provide two kinds of services for each user. One is the actual electric energy consumed (measured by "kwh"); The second is the preparation (calculated in kilowatts) that users can provide electricity in time whenever they need it. Therefore, the total cost of power supply to users by power enterprises is also divided into two parts, namely variable cost and fixed cost. In order to bear the burden fairly, it is necessary to implement the two-part electricity price. In addition, there are differences in voltage, load rate, power factor and power supply reliability. In particular, in recent years, the development of new energy power generation needs to be treated differently. Therefore, the electricity price can not only rely on a single electricity generation electricity price. For these reasons, in addition to the two factors of power supply and maximum demand, the cost allocation also includes 10 factors, such as power supply quantity, maximum demand, load rate and equipment utilization rate, load dispersion rate, load dispersion rate and load rate, user location, load occurrence time, seasonal change of power load and power supply conditions, power rate, power outage, etc. Thus, according to the GGII forecast, the variety of electricity is not single, and the single electricity price cannot be adopted

III

types of electricity price

in fact, the electricity price is similar to the price of meat. The single electricity price is the comprehensive average price, which is equivalent to the price of raw pigs entering the slaughterhouse or the price of pork leaving the slaughterhouse. Because it is the average price of the whole pig at that time, it is impossible to separate the prices of various kinds of meat, but it can no longer be sold at this average price at the retailers

take pork as an example. When the ex factory price of pork in the slaughterhouse is 10 yuan/Jin, the price of meat sold by retailers in different parts is also different. However, there are some differences between pork retailers and power retailers. Pork retailers purchase only one pig. Small retailers can sell one pig for several days, while large retailers can sell several pigs a day. In this way, the wholesale price of pork is the same. However, the situation of electricity is different. Different electricity sellers have different power consumption structures. Some mainly use large industrial power, some mainly use commercial power, some mainly use agricultural production enterprises, and some mainly use civil power. If the wholesale electricity prices to electricity sellers are uniform, the electricity sellers will inevitably have uneven happiness and bitterness. In the planned economy era, the integrated average electricity price multiplied by 70% was adopted as the single sale electricity price for the single seller (responsible for power supply and electricity sales) to solve the problem of uneven happiness and bitterness. In market economy countries, the terminal sales electricity price can be roughly divided into two categories. One category is a variety of electricity prices. For example, California Pacific Gas Power Company, the terminal sales electricity price reaches more than 50; The other is EDF power company of France, which divides the electricity price into 7-8 categories, and various factors are considered in each category

China only has the experience of wholesale electricity price and terminal sales electricity price in the planned economy era, but has no experience of wholesale electricity price and terminal sales electricity price in the market economy era. After the separation of power industry distribution and the introduction of competition mechanism, it is impossible for the competitive power market to naturally form wholesale electricity prices and a large number of terminal sales electricity prices. Therefore, when the distribution is separated and the competition mechanism is introduced in the field of power sales, there needs to be a process of the formation of wholesale electricity price and sales electricity price. Whether there is a set of wholesale electricity price and sales electricity price in line with the law of market economy is the key to the success or failure of the power market

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