Many problems to be solved in the localization of

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Many problems in the localization of petrochemical equipment industry need to be solved.

after years of efforts, China's import dependence on high-end petrochemical equipment has not been significantly alleviated. Many problems faced by the petrochemical equipment industry are not fundamentally solved, and the localization of major petrochemical equipment is empty words

although the localization of petrochemical equipment in China has made some achievements in recent years, the vicious circle of "introduction, introduction and re introduction" in the petrochemical industry has not been effectively curbed due to the shortcomings of China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry, as well as the one-sided pursuit of progressiveness and scale of technology by users, as well as many institutional and institutional shortcomings. As a result, China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises have lost many opportunities to provide equipment for petrochemical enterprises and improve the manufacturing level of petrochemical key equipment. At present, China's large-scale petrochemical equipment with high technical difficulties still rely on imports

petrochemical process neck

petrochemical industry is a process industry with strong production process. Many process technologies are patented technologies that have been studied and developed for many years. The development of these processes and technologies must pass the small-scale test, pilot test and industrial test, and it will take a long time to be truly applied to the project. Many special technological processes need specially designed equipment (patented equipment) to realize. In the past, when introducing foreign advanced process construction projects, China had to introduce special process equipment and patented equipment at the same time, such as some reaction equipment, process gas compressors, chemical pumps, etc. The equipment serves the process. Because the engineering design and equipment development in China have been disconnected from each other for a long time, and the process parameters are uncertain, the equipment cannot be designed and manufactured. For more than 20 years, the process design of petrochemical plant construction in China is basically imported, so the complete set of equipment is almost imported. Taking the complete set of large-scale chemical fertilizer equipment as an example, China has successively introduced 32 complete sets of large-scale chemical fertilizer plants from abroad, of which the process technology is different, and the supporting equipment is also different. The process technology of the original 18 ethylene plants in China is also basically imported. The weakness of petrochemical technology research and development is the bottleneck restricting the localization of petrochemical equipment

process and equipment are disconnected

due to institutional reasons, the product development of China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises has been disconnected from the process research and development of users for a long time, and the manufacturing enterprises lack communication with users, and lack of research on the configuration rules and application requirements of relevant equipment in user devices. The development cycle of petrochemical process is relatively long. Petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises cannot understand the process research schedule of user departments, and it is difficult to track the process development research of users, so they cannot carry out targeted equipment manufacturing research. In addition, this kind of tracking requires a lot of early-stage input, and it is difficult to predict whether the output can be obtained after the input. Therefore, general manufacturing enterprises are unwilling to track or unable to track. Once the process research is mature and equipment is needed to support it, manufacturing enterprises feel that time is tight and many technical problems have not been solved, but are in a passive situation, resulting in a large influx of foreign products into China. Taking coal liquefaction technology as an example, China's Coal Research Institute carried out research on coal liquefaction technology more than 30 years ago, and introduced two sets of pilot plants from the United States and Japan. Our manufacturing enterprises are not interested, and none of them follow up the research and development of their products. If the manufacturing enterprises could timely track their processes and carry out the research and development of equipment at that time, the equipment required for the new large-scale coal liquefaction plant in China today could be put to use, and there was no need to start from scratch or import a large amount of equipment. The disconnection between technology and equipment has hindered the pace of localization of petrochemical equipment

complete set capacity has not been formed

due to the long-term disconnection between China's petrochemical sector and the equipment manufacturing sector, the engineering companies in the household sector are relatively familiar with process design, while relatively unfamiliar with equipment technology. The engineering companies in the equipment manufacturing sector are on the contrary. In addition, for a long time, China's chemical design institutes and chemical research institutes have been separated. Chemical design institutes only focus on engineering design, and chemical research institutes only focus on chemical unit process research; China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry itself is also fragmented. Blower factories only manufacture blowers and water pump factories only manufacture pumps, ignoring the development of complete sets of technology, especially the lack of reliability research of the system. At present, China lacks a number of engineering companies such as GE, abb and Siemens that have the ability of system design, complete system and general engineering contracting, and a large number of petrochemical complete equipment markets have to be ceded to foreign investors

The complete set of engineering has always been a weak link in China. Due to the lack of engineering design, complete equipment supporting, supply and other comprehensive large enterprises (engineering companies) and the awareness of overall service in the petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry, the development of process and equipment, main engine and auxiliary engine has been out of sync for a long time. While developing equipment, the development of technology is often ignored; While developing the main engine, the development of auxiliary engine is often ignored. So that the process and equipment, the main machine and auxiliary machine can not be coordinated development, and the system integration ability is poor, which is difficult to meet the needs of users. This is also the main reason why domestic petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises are difficult to win the bid in major domestic projects and can only subcontract some hardware products after foreign enterprises win the bid. The result is that after winning the bid, foreign companies use the production capacity and cheap labor costs of domestic enterprises to produce hardware equipment in China and obtain higher commercial profits. Domestic enterprises become real migrant workers. The weak capacity of complete sets is also one of the factors restricting the localization of petrochemical equipment

the government's macro-control is weak

in the 1990s, the performance of national materials was relatively stable, the major equipment office of the National Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of machinery industry were abolished one after another, the national macro management was absent, the coordination work of the government was greatly weakened, the localization of construction units was difficult to implement, and petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises, as a vulnerable group, could hardly have the opportunity to undertake the development of petrochemical complete sets of equipment with high technical content, The localization of major technical equipment has been greatly affected. At this stage, the quantity and cost of major technical equipment import increased significantly, but the digestion and absorption effect was poor, and there were problems such as weakening of control means, weak concept of localization, and widening of import and export deficit of major technical equipment. According to statistics, the import and export deficits of equipment products from 2000 to 2005 were US $4.7 billion, US $8.5 billion, US $0.7 billion, US $43.1 billion, US $41 billion and US $9.7 billion respectively

due to the lack of macro management on the import of high-tech equipment, the strategy of market for technology was not adopted when importing equipment, resulting in repeated introduction, so that the core technology of some key equipment has never been mastered at home. The large-scale mixing and granulation unit in the ethylene supporting device is a typical case, which has introduced dozens of sets and spent a lot of foreign exchange. Petrochemical user departments and equipment manufacturing departments have great differences in the understanding of petrochemical major equipment localization, and the lack of government coordination is also one of the important reasons for the slow progress of petrochemical major equipment localization

the industrial concentration is low and the degree of specialization is low. The concentration of China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry is low, and there are few large backbone enterprises. The machinery, transportation and power groups of small and medium-sized enterprises surrounding large backbone enterprises have not formed. Due to historical reasons, enterprises have implemented large-scale and small-scale production methods. The situation of low-level repeated construction in China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry is serious, and there is a lack of economies of scale and professional cooperation. Facing serious horizontal competition, domestic peers cannot be consistent with the outside world; Vertically, facing the imperfect industrial chain, upstream and downstream enterprises cannot cooperate to "fight", it is difficult to form an industrial scale, and the vicious competition in the industry is quite serious

a number of large and super large equipment manufacturing enterprises are concentrated in Northeast and central and western regions of China, but overall, the industrial concentration is not enough. Even enterprises such as the first heavy industry group, the second heavy industry group, the Shengu group and the Shaangu group cannot compete with large international companies such as ge of the United States, Siemens of Germany and Mitsubishi of Japan in terms of their enterprise scale, financing capacity, R & D capacity and complete engineering capacity. China's equipment manufacturing industry has not entered the world's top 500 industrial enterprises, and there are few large enterprises with international competitiveness in terms of scale and technical level

limited by the system, funds and concepts, the business scale of most enterprises in China still stays in the process of product processing and manufacturing. The ability to rely on technology introduction and independent development to develop complete set design, system integration and general engineering contracting is generally insufficient, and it is difficult to improve the service level and expand the market space. In international cooperation, multinational companies often make sets and domestic enterprises make products

lack of centralized and continuous investment in innovation funds

independent innovation of petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry requires high investment, long cycle and high risk. The proportion of R & D expenditure in sales revenue in developed countries such as Japan is more than 5%, while the proportion of R & D expenditure in large and medium-sized petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises in China is 1.2%

Low profit level and high financial cost also limit the R & D investment of China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises. Only a few key petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises have invested more than 3% in scientific research. If we take into account the reality that China's petrochemical equipment enterprises are small, the gap with developed countries is more obvious. Even if this part of the investment is directly used for the purchase of R & D equipment and the pilot test of products, there are not many

at present, China's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry has introduced technology, and its digestion, absorption and re innovation funds are scarce, which is a relatively prominent problem. From 1991 to 2002, the cost of digestion and absorption in China was only equivalent to 4% - 9% of the funds for imported technology. In 2005, the cost of imported technology in the equipment manufacturing industry was 13.667 billion yuan, and the cost of digestion and absorption was 3.517 billion yuan. The ratio of the cost of imported technology to the cost of digestion and absorption was 1:0.26. However, developed countries usually introduce technology of US $1 and spend US $3 on digestion, absorption and re innovation. For example, Germany is 1:3.3. Without sufficient digestion and absorption of funds as a guarantee, it is impossible to talk about the formation and improvement of independent development and innovation capabilities

technological innovation is a continuous accumulation process. It takes at least three to five years for an independent R & D to be successful from its start. Without centralized and continuous investment, it is difficult to achieve a technological breakthrough from "medium and high-end entry". At present, petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises have insufficient self accumulation, so it is difficult to invest more financial resources in technological innovation to ensure continuous investment in research and development

lack of innovation power

although the investment of R & D funds of Chinese enterprises has exceeded the investment of the government, from the perspective of function, enterprises have not become the real subject of independent innovation. The essence of the reason is the lack of innovation power. China is in the period of economic transformation, and the property right system of enterprises is still immature and unstable, especially the enterprises engaged in the manufacturing of major technical equipment are mostly state-owned or state-owned holding enterprises. The appointment system is adopted by the senior managers of enterprises. The recent performance is often the most urgent pursuit of enterprise managers and management teams. Almost no one is willing to "plant trees this year and pick fruits next year", thus losing the desire for independent innovation. At the same time, guided by the preference of many local governments to pursue speed, expand investment and expand scale by extension, enterprises prefer to copy production capacity at a low level, but are stingy with technology and people

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